and Benchmarks: "Volcano" Module
The ETE "Volcano" module supports the following
science standards and benchmarks:
Science Education Standards (Science
Education Standards Online)
As a result of activities, students should develop understanding and abilities
aligned with the following concepts and processes.
and organization: Some of the fundamental concepts that underlie this
- Systems have boundaries,
components, resources flow (input and output), and feedback.
- The idea of simple
systems encompasses subsystems as well as identifying the structure
and function of systems, feedback and equilibrium, and the distinction
between open and closed systems.
- An understanding
of regularities in systems, and by extension, the universe; they then
can develop understanding of basic laws, theories, and models that explain
- An assumption
of order establishes the basis for cause-effect relationship and predictability.
- The behavior of
units of matter, objects, organisms, or events in the universe-can be
- Probability is
the relative certainty (or uncertainty) that individuals can assign
to selected events happening (or not happening) in a specified space
and explanation: Some of the fundamental concepts that underlie this standard
- Evidence consists
of observations and data on which to base scientific explanations.
- Using evidence
to understand interactions allows individuals to predict changes in
natural and designed systems.
- Models are tentative
schemes or structures that correspond to real objects, events, or classes
of events, and that have explanatory power.
- Models help scientists
and engineers understand how things work.
- Models take many
forms, including physical objects, plans, mental constructs, mathematical
equations, and computer simulations.
- Scientific explanations
incorporate existing scientific knowledge and new evidence from observations,
experiments, or models into internally consistent, logical statements.
- Different terms,
such as "hypothesis," "model," "law,"
"principle," "theory," and "paradigm"
are used to describe various types of scientific explanations.
and measurement: Some of the fundamental concepts that underlie this standard
- Interactions within
and among systems result in change.
- Changes vary in
rate, scale, and pattern, including trends and cycles.
- Energy can be
transferred and matter can be changed.
- Changes in systems
can be quantified.
- Mathematics is
essential for accurately measuring change.
- Different systems
of measurement are used for different purposes.
- An important part
of measurement is knowing when to use which system.
- Scale includes
understanding that different characteristics, properties, or relationships
within a system might change as its dimensions are increased or decreased.
Evolution and equilibrium:
Some of the fundamental concepts that underlie this standard are:
- Evolution is a
series of changes, some gradual and some sporadic, that accounts for
the present form and function of objects, organisms, and natural and
- The general idea
of evolution is that the present arises from materials and forms of
A: Science As Inquiry (pp. 173-176)
Fundamental abilities and concepts that underlie the Abilities Necessary
To Do Scientific Inquiry include:
- Identify questions
and concepts that guide scientific investigations.
- Use technology
and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.
- Formulate and
revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence.
- Recognize and
analyze alternative explanations and models.
- Communicate and
defend a scientific argument.
that underlie the Understandings about Scientific Inquiry include:
- Scientists rely
on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data.
- New techniques
and tools provide new evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather
data, thereby contributing to the advance of science.
- The accuracy and
precision of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration,
depends on the technology used.
- Mathematics is
essential in scientific inquiry. Mathematical tools and models guide
and improve the posing of questions, gathering data, constructing explanations
and communicating results.
- Scientific explanations
must adhere to criteria such as:
- a proposed
explanation must be logically consistent;
- it must abide
by the rules of evidence;
- it must be
open to questions and possible modification;
- and it must
be based on historical and current scientific knowledge.
- Results of scientific
inquiry-new knowledge and methods-emerge from different types of investigations
and public communication among scientists.
- In communicating
and defending the results of scientific inquiry, arguments must be logical
and demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations,
and the historical body of scientific knowledge.
- The methods and
procedures that scientists used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported
to enhance opportunities for further investigation.
B: Physical Science (pp. 176-181).
of Energy and Matter: Some fundamental concepts that underlie this standard
- Waves, including
sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves, have energy
and can transfer energy when they interact with matter.
waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared
radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays,
and gamma rays.
D: Earth and Space Science (pp. 187-190)
Energy in the Earth System: Fundamental concepts that underlie this standard
- Earth systems
have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat.
- The sun is the
major external source of energy.
- Two primary sources
of the earth's internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes
and the gravitational energy from the earth's original formation.
- The outward transfer
of earth's internal heat drives convection circulation in the mantle
that propels the plates comprising earth's surface across the face of
Fundamental concepts that underlie this standard are:
- The earth is a
system containing essentially a fixed amount of each stable chemical
atom or element.
- Each element can
exist in several different chemical reservoirs. Each element on earth
moves among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms
as part of geochemical cycles.
- Movement of matter
between reservoirs is driven by the earth's internal and external sources
- These movements
are often accompanied by a change in the physical and chemical properties
of the matter.
The Origin and Evolution
of the Earth System: Fundamental concepts that underlie this standard
- Interactions among
the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms have resulted
in the ongoing evolution of the earth system.
- We can observe
some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time
scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements
take place over hundreds of millions of years.
F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives (pp. 193-199)
and Community Health: Some fundamental concepts and principles that underlie
this standard include
- Hazards and the
potential for accidents exist. Regardless of the environment, the possibility
of injury, illness, disability, or death may be present.
Some of the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie this standard
- Natural ecosystems
provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes
include maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of
soils, control of the hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling
Natural and Human-Induced
Hazards: Some of the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie
this standard include
- Normal adjustments
of earth may be hazardous for humans.
- Humans live at
the interface between the atmosphere driven by solar energy and the
upper mantle where convection creates changes in the earth's solid crust.
- As societies have
grown, become stable, and come to value aspects of the environment,
vulnerability to natural processes of change has increased. Human activities
can enhance potential for hazards.
- Acquisition of
resources, urban growth, and waste disposal can accelerate rates of
- Some hazards,
such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe weather, are rapid
- There are slow
and progressive changes that also result in problems for individuals
- Natural and human-induced
hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk.
- Many changes in
the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society, as well
as cause risks.
- Students should
understand the costs and trade-offs of various hazards-ranging from
those with minor risk to a few people to major catastrophes with major
risk to many people.
- The scale of events
and the accuracy with which scientists and engineers can (and cannot)
predict events are important considerations.
Science and Technology
in Local, National, and Global Challenges: Some of the fundamental concepts
and principles that underlie this standard include
- Science and technology
are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what
can happen, not what should happen. The latter involves human decisions
about the use of knowledge.
- Decisions involve
assessment of alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits and consideration
of who benefits and who suffers, who pays and gains, and what the risks
are and who bears them.
- Students should
understand the appropriateness and value of basic questions-"What
can happen?"- "What are the odds?"-and "How do scientists
and engineers know what will happen?"
E: Science and Technology (pp. 190-193)
abilities and concepts that underlie the Abilities Of Technological
- Identify a problem
or design an opportunity.
- Propose designs
- choose between alternative solutions.
- Implement a proposed
- Evaluate the solution
and its consequences.
- Communicate the
problem, process, and solution.
science and technology Some of the fundamental concepts and principles
that underlie this standard include
- Scientists in
different disciplines ask different questions, use different methods
of investigation, and accept different types of evidence to support
- Many scientific
investigations require the contributions of individuals from different
disciplines, including engineering.
- New disciplines
of science, such as geophysics and biochemistry often emerge at the
interface of two older disciplines.
- Creativity, imagination,
and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and
- Science and technology
are pursued for different purposes. Scientific inquiry is driven by
the desire to understand the natural world, and technological design
is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems.
- Technology, by
its nature, has a more direct effect on society than science because
its purpose is to solve human problems, help humans adapt, and fulfill
solutions may create new problems. Science, by its nature, answers questions
that may or may not directly influence humans. Sometimes scientific
advances challenge people's beliefs and practical explanations concerning
various aspects of the world.
G: History and Nature of Science (pp. 200 - 201)
Perspectives: Some of the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie
this standard include.
- Much can be learned
about the internal workings of science and the nature of science from
study of individual scientists, their daily work, and their efforts
to advance scientific knowledge in their area of study
- The historical
perspective of scientific explanations demonstrates how scientific knowledge
changes by evolving over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge.
Science As a Human
Endeavor: Some of the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie
this standard include
- Individuals and
teams have contributed and will continue to contribute to the scientific
- Doing science
or engineering can be as simple as an individual conducting field studies
or as complex as hundreds of people working on a major scientific question
or technological problem.
- Pursuing science
as a career or as a hobby can be both fascinating and intellectually
- Scientists have
ethical traditions. Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting
about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making public
the results of work. Violations of such norms do occur, but scientists
responsible for such violations are censured by their peers.
- Scientists are
influenced by societal, cultural, and personal beliefs and ways of viewing
the world. Science is not separate from society but rather science is
a part of society.
Nature of Scientific
Knowledge: Some of the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie
this standard include
- Science distinguishes
itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge
through the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism,
as scientists strive for the best possible explanations about the natural
- Scientific explanations
should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism,
report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public.
- Explanations on
how the natural world changes based on myths, personal beliefs, religious
values, mystical inspiration, superstition, or authority may be personally
useful and socially relevant, but they are not scientific.
- Because all scientific
ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation, all scientific
knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes
- The core ideas
of science such as the conservation of energy or the laws of motion
have been subjected to a wide variety of confirmations and are therefore
unlikely to change in the areas in which they have been tested.
- In areas where
data or understanding are incomplete, such as the details of human evolution
or questions surrounding global warming, new data may well ead to changes
in current ideas or resolve current conflicts.
- In situations
where information is still fragmentary, it is normal for scientific
ideas to be incomplete, but this is also where the opportunity for making
advances may be greatest.
By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:
Content Standards: Chapter 11 Common Themes
how things work and designing solutions to problems of almost any kind
can be facilitated by systems analysis.
- In defining a
system, it is important to specify its boundaries and subsystems, indicate
its relation to other systems, and identify what its input and its output
are expected to be.
- The basic idea
of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship that
behaves in the same ways as the objects or processes under investigation.
- The usefulness
of a model can be tested by comparing its predictions to actual observations
in the real world.
11C Constancy and
- Things can change
in detail but remain the same in general (the players change, but the
team remains; cells are replaced, but the organism remains). Sometimes
counterbalancing changes are necessary for a thing to retain its essential
constancy in the presence of changing conditions.
- Graphs and equations
are useful (and often equivalent) ways for depicting and analyzing patterns
- In many physical,
biological, and social systems, changes in one direction tend to produce
opposing (but somewhat delayed) influences, leading to repetitive cycles
- Representing large
numbers in terms of powers of ten makes it easier to think about them
and to compare things that are greatly different.
- Because different
properties are not affected to the same degree by changes in scale,
large changes in scale typically change the way that things work in
physical, biological, or social systems.
Chapter 1 The Nature of Science
The Scientific World View
- Scientists assume
that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are
the same everywhere.
- Change and continuity
are persistent features of science.
- In science, the
testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old
- Science is an
ongoing process leads to an increasingly better understanding of how
things work in the world but not to absolute truth.
1B Scientific Inquiry
are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena,
to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and
to compare different theories.
- Hypotheses are
widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and
what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of
the data (both new and previously available).
- Sometimes, scientists
can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not
possible for practical or ethical reasons, they try to observe as wide
a range of natural occurrences as possible to be able to discern patterns.
- There are different
traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all
have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic,
and good arguments. And there is agreement that progress in all fields
of science depends on intelligence, hard work, imagination, and even
- Scientists in
any one research group tend to see things alike, so even groups of scientists
may have trouble being entirely objective about their methods and findings.
For that reason, scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible
sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data
analysis. Checking each other's results and explanations helps, but
that is no guarantee against bias.
- In the short run,
new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often
encounter vigorous criticism. In the long run, theories are judged by
how they fit with other theories, the range of observations they explain,
how well they explain observations, and how effective they are in predicting
- New ideas in science
are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected
by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings;
and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many investigators.
1C The Scientific
- Science disciplines
differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes
sought, but they share a common purpose and philosophy, and all are
part of the same scientific enterprise.
- Many problems
are studied by scientists using information and skills from many disciplines.
- Disciplines do
not have fixed boundaries, and it happens that new scientific disciplines
are being formed where existing ones meet and that some subdisciplines
spin off to become new disciplines in their own right.
- Scientists can
bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters
of public concern.
- Scientists as
a group can be expected to be no less biased than other groups are about
their perceived interests.
- The strongly held
traditions of science, including its commitment to peer review and publication,
serve to keep the vast majority of scientists well within the bounds
of ethical professional behavior. Deliberate deceit is rare and likely
to be exposed sooner or later by the scientific enterprise itself.
- Funding influences
the direction of science by virtue of the decisions that are made on
which research to support.
Chapter 4 The Physical Setting
Processes that Shape the Earth
- The slow movement
of material within the earth results from heat flowing out from the
deep interior and the action of gravitational forces on regions of different
- The solid crust
of the earth-including both the continents and the ocean basins-consists
of separate plates that ride on a denser, hot, gradually deformable
layer of the earth:
- The crust sections
move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places, pulling
apart in other places.
- Ocean-floor plates
may slide under continental plates, sinking deep into the earth.
- The surface layers
of these plates may fold, forming mountain ranges.
- Earthquakes often
occur along the boundaries between colliding plates, and molten rock
from below creates pressure that is released by volcanic eruptions,
helping to build up mountains.
- Under the ocean
basins, molten rock may well up between separating plates to create
new ocean floor.
- Volcanic activity
along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can thrust
above the ocean's surface to become islands.
4B The Earth
- The action of
gravitational force on regions of different densities causes them to
rise or fall-and such circulation, influenced by the rotation of the
earth, produces winds and ocean currents.
Chapter 7 Human Society
- The size and rate
of growth of the human population in any location is affected by economic,
political, religious, technological, and environmental factors. Some
of these factors, in turn, are influenced by the size and rate of growth
of the population.
- The decisions
of one generation both provide and limit the range of possibilities
open to the next generation.
7D Social Trade-offs
- Benefits and costs
of proposed choices include consequences that are long-term as well
as short-term, and indirect as well as direct.
- The more remote
the consequences of a personal or social decision, the harder it usually
is to take them into account in considering alternatives.
- Benefits and costs
may be difficult to estimate.
- In deciding among
alternatives, a major question is who will receive the benefits and
who (not necessarily the same people) will bear the costs.
- Social trade-offs
are often generational:
The cost of benefits received by one generation may fall on subsequent
The cost of a social trade-off is sometimes borne by one generation
although the benefits are enjoyed by their descendants.
Chapter 1 Historical Perspectives
Moving the Continents
- The idea of continental
drift was suggested by the matching shapes of the Atlantic coasts of
Africa and South America, but rejected for lack of other evidence. It
just seemed absurd that anything as massive as a continent could move
- Early in the 20th
century, Alfred Wegener, a German scientist, reintroduced the idea of
moving continents, adding such evidence as the underwater shapes of
the continents, the similarity of life forms and land forms in corresponding
parts of Africa and South America, and the increasing separation of
Greenland and Europe. Still, very few contemporary scientists adopted
- The theory of
plate tectonics was finally accepted by the scientific community in
the 1960s, when further evidence had accumulated in support of it. The
theory was seen to provide an explanation for a diverse array of seemingly
unrelated phenomena, and there was a scientifically sound physical explanation
of how such movement could occur.
Chapter 12 Habits of Mind
Values and Attitudes
- Know why curiosity,
honesty, openness, and skepticism are so highly regarded in science
and how they are incorporated into the way science is carried out; exhibit
those traits in their own lives and value them in others.
- View science and
technology thoughtfully, being neither categorically antagonistic nor
12B Computation and
- Use ratios and
proportions, including constant rates, in appropriate problems.
- Find answers to
problems by substituting numerical values in simple algebraic formulas
and judge whether the answer is reasonable by reviewing the process
and checking against typical values.
- Make up and write
out simple algorithms for solving problems that take several steps.
- Use computer spreadsheet,
graphing, and database programs to assist in quantitative analysis.
- Compare data for
two groups by representing their averages and spreads graphically.
- Express and compare
very small and very large numbers using powers-of-ten notation.
- Trace the source
of any large disparity between an estimate and the calculated answer.
- Consider the possible
effects of measurement errors on calculations.
- Learn quickly
the proper use of new instruments by following instructions in manuals
or by taking instructions from an experienced user.
- Use computers
for producing tables and graphs and for making spreadsheet calculations.
- Make and interpret
- Write clear, step-by-step
instructions for conducting investigations, operating something, or
following a procedure.
- Choose appropriate
summary statistics to describe group differences, always indicating
the spread of the data as well as the data's central tendencies.
- Describe spatial
relationships in geometric terms such as perpendicular, parallel, tangent,
similar, congruent, and symmetrical.
- Use and correctly
interpret relational terms such as if . . . then . . . , and, or, sufficient,
necessary, some, every, not, correlates with, and causes.
- Participate in
group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately
what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and
expressing alternative positions.
- Use tables, charts,
and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral and written presentations.
- Notice and criticize
arguments based on the faulty, incomplete, or misleading use of numbers,
such as in instances when:
- average results are reported, but not the amount of variation around
- a percentage or fraction is given, but not the total sample size (as
in "9 out of 1- dentists recommend ...")
- absolute and proportional quantities are mixed (as in "3,400
more robberies in our city last year, whereas other cities had an increase
of less than 1%")
- results are reported with overstated precision (as in representing
13 out of 19 students as 68.42%)
- Check graphs to see that they do not misrepresent results by using
inappropriate scales or by failing to specify the axes clearly.
- Wonder how likely it is that some event of interest might have occurred
just by chance.
- Insist that the critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning
be made explicit so that the validity of the position being taken-whether
one's own or that of others-can be judged.
- Be aware, when considering claims, that when people try to prove a
point, they may select only the data that support it and ignore any
that would contradict it.
- Suggest alternative ways of explaining data and criticize arguments
in which data, explanations, or conclusions are represented as the only
ones worth consideration, with no mention of other possibilities. Similarly,
suggest alternative trade-offs in decisions and designs and criticize
those in which major trade-offs are not acknowledged.