Pick a Region:. . South Asia:. . Kashmir
Islam Became the Dominant
In 1346, Udiana Deva, the last Hindu king in Kashmir, was murdered by his Muslim prime minister. Amir Shah soon enacted policies that forcefully encouraged Hindus to convert to Islam or to leave Kashmir. During the next 231 years, most Hindus had converted or left the province. Then the Mughal dynasty under Akbar (see History) conquered the area and permitted greater tolerance toward Hinduism. Caption: grand ceremony of presentation of white falcon to Great Mughal Emperor Akbar. Image © 2000 www.arttoday.com
Afghan invaders seized Kashmir in 1752 and reintroduced policies to encourage the spread of Islam again.
Singh Controlled Kashmir
Four members of the Dorga family ruled as Maharajas of Kashmir from 1837 until the territory was merged into India in 1949. The Maharajas had two capitals--Jammu in the winter, and Srinagar in the summer--in their territory.
Bahadur Was Opposed by Sheik Abdullah
An autocratic ruler, Bahadur refused to encourage the modernization of his kingdom, and little tax revenue was spent on education, social services, or improvements in the kingdom's infrastructure. As adjacent areas of British India began to modernize, Bahadur faced increasing pressure to share his power with his people.
In the early 1930s Sheik Mohammed Abdullah opposed Maharaja Hari Singh Bahadurs policies. Influenced by the rise of nationalist movements in British India, Abdullah led a Muslim reform movement. This movement demanded two things:
In the 1930s Bahadur jailed Abdullah several times for his political activities.
Abdullahs vision of the subcontinent's future was close to that of his good friend, Jawaharlal Nehru, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress Party. Abdullah opposed the partition of British India into a Muslim and Hindu state, but he favored the creation of a secular society and socialist economic policies.
Muslims in Kashmir Support
Bahadur threw both men into prison in 1946 and sought ways to preserve the independence of his kingdom from India and Pakistan.