Pick a Region:. . Middle East:. . Israel & Palestine
The 1948 War (May 1948
- July 1949)
The war thus ended: without a peace treaty between Israel and any of the Arab states; with a large Palestinian refugee population (83% of the Palestinians became some sort of refugee); with a feeling of resentment and humiliation among the Arabs and the Palestinians; and a feeling of insecurity and fear among the Israelis.
Suez Crisis (October
Britain, France and Israel constructed a plan whereby following a guerrilla attack by Egyptian-based Palestinian commandos against Israel, Israel would invade Egypt and drive to the Suez Canal. Then, the British and French would demand that both sides withdraw ten miles from the Canal. After the anticipated Egyptian refusal, Nasser would be labeled the aggressor and British and French troops would occupy the Canal. If possible, they were then to drive to Cairo or they hoped Nasser would be overthrown by his own people.
On October 29, 1956 the attack began and initially went as planned. However, the attack soon prompted an unexpected international outcry, including from the United States and the Soviet Union. Britain, France, and Israel withdrew in disgrace. In the end, Egypt moved closer to the Soviet Union, Nasser emerged as a hero in the Arab world, and Israel lost some of its sympathy within the international community.
Six-Day War (June 1967)
On 6/5/67, the Israeli air force launched a surprise attack and decimated the Egyptian air force on the ground. It then accomplished similar results against the Syrian and Jordanian air forces. With unchallenged mastery of the air, Israeli ground units then struck, capturing the Gaza Strip from Egypt on the 6th and the Sinai Peninsula on the 8th. The West Bank of the Jordan River (including East Jerusalem) was captured on June 7th from Jordan. Despite a UN sponsored truce, Israel continued to attack Syria until the Golan Heights were taken on June 10th. At that point a cease-fire was accepted.
As a result of the war:
The 1973 War (October
The war was launched on 10/6/73, on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur, and during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. While the Syrians launched an attack against the Golan Heights, the Egyptians, in a coordinated move, undertook a crossing of the Suez Canal. The Bar-Lev defense line of the Israelis was quickly breached and the Israelis began a retreat. On October 10, the Soviets begin to resupply the Syrians and Egyptians. On October 13, the U.S. began a similar, but much larger, resupply of Israel. With the infusion of these weapons the Israelis, on October 15, moved to the offensive. They were able to retake the Golan and then to cross the Suez, thereby isolating the Egyptian 3rd army located in the Sinai.
At this point both superpowers agreed to the need for a cease-fire. UN Resolution 338, which called for a cease-fire in place and the implementation on UN 242, was passed in the Security Council on 10/22. Israel ignored the cease-fire call because she did not want Arab armies in areas about which negotiations might take place; i.e. the Sinai and Golan. On 10/24, the Soviets proposed a joint U.S.-Soviet military force to rescue the trapped Egyptian 3rd Army. To warn off the Soviets, Nixon placed American nuclear forces on alert world-wide. At this point the Soviets withdrew the proposal and Israel, under American pressure, agreed to the cease-fire.
A secondary aspect of the war was the 1973-74 oil embargo and price hike. In coordination with Egypt and Syria, the oil producing countries of the Middle East, including America's regional ally, the Shah of Iran, made a concerted effort to control production and to raise prices. In a matter of months the price of oil quadrupled severely effecting the economies of many oil importing states, including the United States. Also, an effort was made to deny certain states access to oil. The United States, the Netherlands, Portugal and South Africa were specifically targeted for embargo. While the embargo was not successful in altering American policy, the future power of the "oil weapon" was visibly demonstrated.
Israeli Invasion of