an alteration in structure or function of a plant or animal that helps
it change over the course of successive generations in order to be better
suited to live in its environment.
the total mass of living and dead material in an area.
combustion the rapid
process of oxidation that occurs when organic matter ignites and burns,
producing light and heat. It is the same chemical reaction that occurs
during decomposition and respiration, 6 O2 +
C6H12O6 ------> 6
+ 6 CO2.
the top of a tree.
crown fire a fire that
has ascended from the ground into the tops of trees and can advance more
or less independently of the ground.
an area where energy, nutrients, water, and other biological and geological
influences, including all living organisms, work together and influence
the conversion of a liquid substance into a gaseous state.
fire ecology the study
of wildland fires and their relationship to the living and nonliving environment.
fire regime the role
fire plays in an ecosystem. It is a function of the frequency of fire
occurrence, fire intensity and the amount of fuel consumed.
triangle an image of the three components--heat, fuel, and oxygen--that
are necessary for a fire to ignite and continue burning.
the relative ease with which a fuel ignites and burns regardless of the
quantity of the fuel.
all burnable material.
load the amount of potentially combustible material
found in an area. It is usually expressed as tons per acre.
management the treatment of live and dead vegetation to prevent large-scale,
high-intensity wildland fires and to maintain healthy ecosystems.
processes natural phenomena that operate at the earth's surface and
control the evolution of landscapes and the resulting quality of the physical
feature relating to the Earth's internal heat. Description commonly applied to
springs or vents discharging hot water or steam.
the moisture (water vapor) content of the air. An increase in air moisture
is referred to as an increase in humidity.
ignition the initiation
lightning a discharge
of atmospheric electricity accompanied by a hot flash of light.
any substance assimilated by living things that promotes growth.
matter carbon-containing plant and animal residues.
oxidation the loss of
one or more electrons by an atom, molecule, or ion.
the process by which green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy
in the form of organic (carbon-containing) molecules, releasing oxygen
as a by-product; 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + sunlight ------>
C6H12O6 + 6
a very large, flat area of land that usually is higher than the land around
it. A plateau can sometimes be surrounded by mountains.
tectonics the concept or theory that Earth's crust or outermost
layer is fragmented into a dozen or more large and small rigid plates
that are moving relative to one another as they ride atop hotter, more
burning human-caused or natural fires that are allowed to burn because
they meet wildland management objectives without threatening people, property
or resource values.
the second stage of ignition during which energy causes gas molecules
given off by a heated solid fuel to vibrate and break into pieces.
pyrophytes species of
"fire-loving" plants that must be subjected to fire to complete
some part of their life cycle.
sensing gathering information about something from a distance.
the process by which animals oxidize organic (carbon-containing) molecules
to convert their chemical energy to heat, releasing carbon dioxide and
water as by-products. The chemical reaction for this process is 6 O2 +
C2H12O6 ------> 6
H2O + 6 CO2.
a highly destructive, uncontrollable fire.
wildland fires all fires
that burn in wildlands, including wildfires and all prescribed fires.